Verbs

The Russian verb has 3 tenses and 2 aspects. Aspects describe different qualities of an action—it is either acting (the process of doing something—Imperfective) or the result of an action (after someone has finished doing something—Perfective). Using the Imperfective/Perfective depends only on the intention of the speaker to emphasize different aspects of action in his or her speech.

PROCESS – IMPERFECT RESULT – PERFECT
LR LR
Zavtra q budu risovat' kartinu.
I will be drawing a picture tomorrow.
Zavtra q narisuú kartinu.
Tomorrow I’ll draw a picture.
It means
Q tol'ko xocu risovat' kartinu neobqzatel'no q zakoncu eó.
I am going to draw tomorrow but there is no guarantee that I’ll finish my picture that day.
Q obqzatel'no zakoncu kartinu.
I will finish the picture tomorrow.
Russians use the Imperfective for the Present Tense since the present is in progress. That’s why the Perfective can be used only in the Past or Future Tense since the result can be either reached in past or it will be reached in future.
If you need to say that the process of doing something is necessary and important then use the Imperfective! If you require emphasizing in your speech a necessity of fulfillment or a desire to finish an action and achieve a result—use the Perfective.
Examples:
Q budu zanimat'sq sportom ! Q sdelaú éto k veceru!
On budet govorit' s direktorom posle obeda. My napihem otcót cerez nedelú!
Oni uwe delali otcót na prohloj nedele. Oni uwe pogovorili s klientom

Table of difference between two aspects
Imperfective Perfective
  • Process
  • Result
    Vcera q cital knigu. Vcera q procital interesnuú knigu.
    Utrom q el buterbrod s syrom. Utrom q s"el tri buterbroda!
    Zavtra q budu pokupat' mahinu. Zavtra q kuplú novuú sportivnuú mahinu.
    V voskresen'e my budem smotret' spektakal'! V voskresen'e q obqzatel'no posmotrú novyj spektakal'!
  • Regularity of doing something
  • Something is done (or is going to be done) only once
    My kawdoe utro citali novosti. Segodnq my procitali prekrasnye novosti!
    On ewednevno pil kofe. On segodnq vypil kofe s molokom xotq ne lúbit moloko.
  • Simultaneity of different actions
  • Sequence of actions
    Druz'q razgovarivali pili pivo i sluhali muzyku Snacala oni pogovorili potom vypili pivo i tol'ko zatem posluhali muzyku.

    The Perfective aspect of Russian verbs is formed from the Imperfective by using different prefixes and suffixes.

    verb Imperfective Perfective
    PREFIXES
  • to watch
  • smotret' POsmotret'
  • to listen to
  • sluhat' POsluhat'
  • to play
  • igrat' POigrat'
  • to work
  • rabotat' POrabotat'
  • to go for a walk
  • gulqt POgulqt
  • to breakfast
  • zavtrakat' POzavtrakat'
  • to lunch
  • obedat' POobedat'
  • to dinner
  • uwinat' POuwinat'
  • to call
  • zvonit' POzvonit'
  • to give (as a present)
  • darit' POdarit'
  • to dance
  • tançevat' POtançevat'
  • to eat
  • est' S"est'
  • to drink
  • pit' VYpit'
  • to draw
  • risovat' NArisovat'
  • to write
  • pisat' NApisat'
  • to read
  • citat' PROcitat'
  • to pay
  • platit' ZAplatit'
    SUFFIXES
    CHANGES TO I
  • to finish
  • koncat' koncIt'
  • to study
  • izucat' izucIt'
  • to answer, to reply
  • otvecat' otveTIt'
    CHANGES TO A
  • to show
  • pokazyvat' pokazAt'
  • to tell
  • rasskazyvat' rasskazAt'
    VERB SHORTENS
  • to buy
  • pokupat' kupit'
  • to start
  • nacinat' nacat'
    OTHER VERBS
  • to take
  • brat' vzqt'
  • to speak
  • govorit' skazat'

    Aspects of verbs denote tenses

    The Perfective can be used only in the Past or Future Tense, since the result can be reached only in past, and there is still a chance that there will be a result in future. Also please note that verbs in the Perfective aspect in the Future Tense change persons as verbs in the Imperfective aspect in the Present Tense.

    Imperfective Perfective
    1. Past Tense
    On smotrel, pisal, rabotal, wil On posmotrel, napisal, porabotal, prowil
    Ona smotrela, pisala, rabotala, wila Ona posmotrela, napisala, porabotala, prowila
    Oni smotreli, pisali, rabotali Oni posmotreli, napisali
    2. Present Tense
    Q smotrú NO PERFECTIVE
    Ty smotrih'
    On/ona smotrit
    My smotrim
    Vy smotrite
    3. Future Tense
    Q budu

    Ty budeh'

    On/ona budet SMOTRET'

    My budem

    Vy budete
    Q posmotrú
    Ty posmotrih'
    Ona/ona posmotrit
    My posmotrim
    Vy posmotrite

    Original Here: http://learnrussian.rt.com/grammar-tables/aspects-of-russian-verbs–imperfective-and-perfective/

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